Open Access

Open access refers to research outputs which are digital information distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, and possibly with the addition of a Creative Commons (CC) license to promote reuse. Open access scholarly literature is free of charge and often carries less restrictive copyright and licensing barriers than traditionally published works, Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers, theses, book chapters, and monographs.

Academic articles have been the main focus of the movement. Conventional journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as site licenses or pay-per-publishing charges. Open access research is advanced by a range of distribution mechanisms and business models.